Ernest Shackleton

0) 01 who is he?


He was an Anglo-Irish explorer. Born in Kilkea, Ireland, Shackleton was a member of four Antarctic expeditions, three of which he led. After the Nimrod Expedition, 1907?09, he was knighted for his achievement in establishing a record furthest south latitude at 8823'S, 97 nautical miles (180 km) from the South Pole.

1) 02 where was he born?


Ernest Shackleton was born on 15 February 1874, in Kilkea near Athy, County Kildare, Ireland, about 30 miles (48 km) from Dublin.

Ernest's father, Henry, and mother, Henrietta Letitia Sophia Gavan, were of English-Irish ancestry. Ernest was the second of their ten children and the first of two sons. In childhood he was described as "bright, good-natured,... and confident".

In 1880, at six years old, Ernest moved to Dublin with his father, who was studying medicine. Four years later, the family moved from Ireland to Sydenham in suburban London to seek a better income and because their Anglo-Irish ancestry made them afraid to stay in Ireland after the assassination of Lord Frederick Cavendish by Irish nationalists.

Shackleton spent the remainder of his childhood in Sydenham.

Ernest was schooled by a governess until the age of 11, when he entered Fir Lodge Preparatory School in West Hill, and was educated from ages 13 to 16 at Dulwich College, a public school for boys.

The young Shackleton did not distinguish himself as a scholar and was said to have been "bored" by his studies. In his final term at the college, however, he was able to achieve fifth place in his class of thirty-one.

Furthermore, throughout his career, Shackleton was a voracious reader, which contributed to the broadening of his horizons.

Shackleton is most noteworthy for leading the unsuccessful Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition, often known as the "Endurance Expedition", between 1914 and 1916.

Although Shackleton failed to achieve his goal of crossing the Antarctic continent on foot, he demonstrated the qualities of leadership for which he is best remembered when the expedition ship Endurance became trapped in the ice and was destroyed.

Shackleton, known by his contemporaries as "the Boss", led his men to refuge on Elephant Island before heading across 800 miles (1,300 km) of the Southern Ocean to South Georgia, in an open boat with five other men. Upon reaching the remote island, Shackleton and two others crossed severe, mountainous terrain to reach a whaling station, from which he was able eventually to rescue his men on Elephant Island. All the men on Endurance survived their ordeal after spending 22 months in the Antarctic, although three men of the supporting Ross Sea Party lost their lives.

Shackleton was a key figure in the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration alongside Roald Amundsen, Douglas Mawson, and Robert Falcon Scott, each of whom is famed for exploits that captured the public imagination. In recent times, he has become known for his leadership skills, and is the topic of many books and films that focus on the explorer's ability to lead men through challenging conditions.

On 9 April 1904 he married 35-year-old Emily Mary Dorman, with whom he shared a love of literature, particularly Robert Browning. The marriage produced three children.

Shackleton wrote long letters to his wife during his explorations, but also engaged in several extramarital affairs, including one with the American actress Rosalind Chetwynd.

Discovery Expedition (1901 - 02)

was led by Robert Falcon Scott with the purpose of undertaking scientific research and exploration along the coast of the Ross Sea in Antarctica. He was sent home half way from the expedition due to differences with Scott.

Nimrod Expedition (1907-09)

The aim was the conquest of both the geographical South Pole and the South Magnetic Pole. Shackleton worked hard to raise money for this expedition at that time as secretary of the Royal Scottish Geographical Society.

The South Pole was not attained, but on 9 January 1909 Shackleton and three companions reached a new farthest south latitude of 88 23' S, a point only 112 miles (180 km) from the Pole.

The South Pole party also discovered the Beardmore Glacier route (named after Shackleton's patron) to the South Polar Plateau, and were the first persons to set foot on the plateau.

The expedition's other accomplishments included the first ascent of Mount Erebus, and a journey to the approximate location of the South Magnetic Pole, reached on 16 January 1909 by Edgeworth David, Douglas Mawson, and Alistair MacKay.

Shackleton returned to the United Kingdom as a hero and was knighted. Soon after, he published a book about Nimrod's expedition titled The Heart of the Antarctic. Regarding the failure to reach the South Pole, Shackleton remarked to his wife: "Better a live donkey than a dead lion."

Endurance Expedition (1914?16)

which would carry the British flag across the continent from the Weddell Sea to the Ross Sea by way of the Pole.

Endurance capsized in icy seas and men abandoned ship. For almost two months, Shackleton and his men camped on an ice floe hoping that it would drift towards Paulet Island approximately 250 miles (400 km) away. After floating around for 4 months they used life boats to reach Elephant island in 7 days.

Elephant Island was an inhospitable place far from any shipping routes and thus a poor location to await rescue. Consequently, Shackleton felt it essential that he set out to find help immediately upon arrival, and to him, it was obvious that he must head back to South Georgia, even though it meant traversing 1,287 kilometres (800 mi) of open ocean in one of the lifeboats. The lifeboat James Caird was chosen for the trip.

The waters that Shackleton had to cross in his boat of 6.85 metres (22.5 ft) are among the most treacherous in the world.Weather reports confirm that gale-force winds of 60 kilometres per hour (37 mph) to 70 kilometres per hour (43 mph) are present in the Drake Passage between South America and Antarctica on an average of 200 days per year; they cause ocean swells of 6 metres (20 ft). After 14 days they reached South Georgia. They walked 36 miles in land and were the first people to cross those mountains. The men were stranded for 105 days before being rescued

Shackleton-Rowett Expedition and death (1921?22)

Shackleton set out again for the Antarctic aboard Quest intending to circumnavigate Antarctica by sea. On 5 January 1922, on this expedition he suffered a fatal heart attack. He was 47.

This is a school research project about an explorer called Ernest Shackleton, a Brisih Explorer that explored Antarctic in the early 1900s.

This research will answer the follwoing questions

Who is he?

Where was he born?

who were his parents?

Where did he go to school?

How did he become famous?

What was his family like?

What did he explore?

How did they dress for this cold expedition?

What did the ships look like?

What does the map of the south pole look like?

What did he look like?

You can find answers to each of them here